At present, no country in the world can not pay attention to the living resources of the oceans as a source of raw materials for production of high-grade food, fodder and technical products. About 20% of total animal protein used in food, provides fish and seafood. Currently, only the livestock and fisheries is the main source of valuable animal protein.
The main value of fish - easily digestible protein. According to physiological observations, fish food is much easier to digest than meat. For example, beef is digested in the body for 5 hours, and the fish - only 2-3 hours. This is due to lower content in fish fibrous connective tissue. In animals contains 5-6% of fibrous connective tissue that is difficult to digest, then the fish its considerably less. Therefore, creating false impression, that fish is less nourishing than meat. When cooking, fish loses less than 20% water, and meat from animals more than 2 times. For this reason, fish more tender and juicy, with beneficial effect on gastrointestinal feeling sick. Elderly are recommended products are the most easily digestible form, ie, from the fish. Fish is widely used in diet and infant nutrition. For children and people suffering from obesity, useful low-fat fish such as cod, hake, blue whiting, etc. For older people to prevent diseases of the cardiovascular system more useful fatty fish, especially sardines, pilchards, mackerel, herring, salmon, capelin, sprat, etc.
In the fish have all the vital amino acids. The lack of some amino acids in foods leads to stunted growth, weight loss, to various kinds of diseases. We can assume that 200 grams of fish completely cover the daily needs of the human body in the essential amino acids. A saltwater fish differs quite a high content of amino acids: tryptophan, lysine and methionine. In addition, fish contains the amino acid taurine, which acts as a regulator of blood pressure, and thus prevents the development of hypertension. Taurine also stimulates the secretion of insulin to regulate blood sugar levels. Rich in taurine squid, shrimp, krill, rockfish, cod, tuna and other pelagic fish. Meat of marine fish has a specific aroma, which gives the product a special piquancy. Taste and smell of seafood due to a unique composition of extractives. In marine fish are more of them than in freshwater, so the saltwater fish can be recommended in gastritis with low acidity, because it stimulates appetite and promotes secretion of gastric juice.
Marine organisms are rich in high-value fats, which are different from the fat of land animals. Fish oils have the ability to remain liquid at lower temperatures than approaching fats Rights, and hence better assimilated. Of fish contain little cholesterol (20-30 mg %), whereas in butter it contains 180-200 mg %, and in animal fat — 100 mg %. Therefore, human consumption of large amounts of solid fats (lard, butter) contributes to the onset of the atheroma Sclerosis. Therefore, all older than 40 years recommended daily intake of fish oil.
Studies conducted in Denmark, found that the dominance of the diet of fish and other seafood - the main reason for their lack of diseases associated with the formation of clots in blood vessels. It turned out that they almost did not suffer a heart attack, stroke, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, etc., that is probably explained by greater consumption of fat fish. Particularly widely used fats, known as w-3 (omega 3) acids. People who frequently consume foods containing w-3 fatty acids (fatty marine fish), reduction in the percentage of cardiovascular disease or cancer, reduction of bad cholesterol, improve vision and activities of the higher nervous system, as well as increased life expectancy. It is known that Japanese people who consumed fish in large numbers, live long.
The main suppliers of products containing w-3 fatty acids on the world market are firms in Japan, Nippon Suysan "," Yanagi heute, "Tayo Chiochio Kangin MD, Norway - Peter Mueller," Corporation "Denofa and Lillerborg, as well as Some companies in Denmark, the United States and England.
A unique feature of fish fat is also the presence of a considerable number of biologically active compounds, or essential fatty acids: linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic, referred to as vitamin F, are not synthesized in the human body and therefore must be part of the food. In marine fish, they are always available. Fat Fish also contain essential vitamins A, D and E. The fish practically the only product that contains a large number of such a set of fat-soluble vitamins. Especially rich in vitamins liver of fish, mainly gadoid species (cod, pollack, hake, blue whiting, grenadier, etc.). The flesh of fish found and water-soluble B-vitamins, which are the same in animals, and vitamins A, D and E are several times more.
Marine fish is particularly rich in iodine, manganese, copper, zinc, essential for normal metabolism. Especially a lot of iodine in the tissues of bottom fish (cod, flounder, catfish, carp, etc.). Marine fish have a greater number of elements such as boron, iron, lithium, fluorine, bromine, etc., so their use is shown in thyroid disease. Based on numerous studies abroad and in our country, makes recommendations that a regular, albeit modest consumption of fish (two fish meals per week) may play a preventive role against atherosclerosis and cardiac forms of ischemic heart disease.